HomeBáo khoa họcPotential land for agriculture development in three coastal districts of Ben Tre...

Potential land for agriculture development in three coastal districts of Ben Tre province in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

Published on

spot_img

trên 6

EnvironmEntal SciEncES
|
ecology
76
SEPTEMBER 2022
Volume 64 Number 3
Introduction
In recent years, the Mekong delta has been heavily
affected by climate change events such as prolonged drought,
erratic rain, unseasonal rain, local flooding, and saltwater
intrusion, which all disturb the agricultural production of
farmers [1-3]. Ben Tre is one provinces in Vietnam that
will be most affected and vulnerable to climate change in
Southeast Asia [4, 5].
The coastal zone in Ben Tre province consists of three
coastal districts, namely, Binh Dai, Ba Tri, and Thanh Phu.
This zone has a diverse ecosystem with three main agro-
ecological zones including the freshwater zone, brackish
water zone, and saltwater zone. The river system comprises
a relatively dense network of river courses that receive
freshwater and sediment from Hau and Tien rivers (two
main parts of Mekong river) [6].
Recently, salinization status has become more complex
and has strongly affected agriculture production in the
coastal zones of the Ben Tre province [7]. In addition, small-
scale farms still occupy a large ratio of land there. Potential
land for agriculture has not been suitably used yet, which
leads to conflict in local land use processes and especially in
boundary areas between freshwater and saltwater zones [8].
Besides, to ensure the economic development of Ben Tre and
the increasing requirements for the quality of agricultural
products were about product quality when society was
developed [9]. In addition, saline intrusion and sea-level
rise affected crop yield and quality [10]. At the same time,
land resources were degraded due to the abuse of chemical
fertilizers and pesticides used for the farmer’s agricultural
intensification [11-13].
Regarding the above issues, research was conducted to
assess the suitability of land and its natural and economic
conditions for agricultural land use types as a basis to
support managers with rationally orienting land use as well
as economically and effectively exploiting land resources
in the coastal areas of the Ben Tre province under the
impact of future climate change. Specifically, this study (1)
performs physical land suitability evaluations; (2) provides
quantitative economic land suitability evaluations, and (3)
integrates physical-economic land suitability evaluations.
Potential land for agriculture development in three coastal districts
of Ben Tre province in the Mekong delta, Vietnam
Chi Nguyen Phan
1
, Tuan Huy Vuong
1
, That Loc Ton
2
, Thanh Vu Pham
1*
1
College of Environment and Natural Resources, Can Tho University
2
Duy Tan University
Received 4 January 2021; accepted 1 April 2021
*
Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
Abstract:
The research objective was to determine the suitability of land regarding physical and economic conditions
as a basis to support managers in planning effective agricultural development strategies that are suitable and
sustainable for land potential in a future affected by climate change. In this research, physical and socio-economic
data were collected by field surveys, household interviews (330 households), and agricultural manager discussions.
Additionally, the
methodology of land suitability
evaluation was based on Food and Agriculture
O
rganization
(FAO)
(1976 & 2007) and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, which were used to determine suitability
classifications for land-use types (under different physical and socio-economic conditions) in three coastal districts
within the Ben Tre province. The results showed that agricultural production status in the research area was
divided into three agro-ecological zones including the freshwater zone, brackish water zone, and saltwater zone
of which the highest rate of agricultural land area was aquaculture. The next major proportion of agricultural
area belonged to land for planting perennial crops and land for planting annual crops. Besides, 7 and 8 land
suitability zones were determined, respectively, depending on physical and economic conditions, for 11 main land-
use types. This research contributes toward basic knowledge that aims to support local decision makers in their
transformation of agricultural land and adaptation of salinization in the future.
Keywords:
agro-ecological zones, Ben Tre province, potential land, salinization, sustainable agriculture.
Classification number:
5.1
DOI : 10.31276/VJSTE.64(3).76-81
EnvironmEntal SciEncES
|
ecology
77
SEPTEMBER 2022
Volume 64 Number 3
Methods
Study scope
This study selected Ben Tre’s three coastal districts
including Thanh Phu, Binh Dai, and Ba Tri districts (Fig. 1)
as a case study area because it is an area that has been
heavily affected by saline intrusion and sea level rise, which
strongly affects the type of agricultural land use [10].
Fig 1. Location of study site.
Data collection and analysis
Secondary data collection:
Data and documents used
including agricultural land-use status, present land use map,
land use planning, and other relation data that were collected
in study area of Ben Tre’s coastal zone.
Primary data collection:
Field surveys were conducted to
determine major available agricultural land use. In addition,
the study was conducted by random interviews with 330
farmer households, and the number of questionnaires
was distributed to eleven land use types in Ben Tre’s
three coastal districts (30 households/land use type) [14].
The information collected includes farmers’ agricultural
production conditions such as investment costs, profits,
advantages and disadvantages in production of farmers.
Three PRA (participatory rural appraisal) with local farmers
and agricultural manager discussions were conducted to
collect extra data and validate household interview data.
Data analysis method:
Collected data was aggregated
by Microsoft Excel to support the process of analysing,
evaluating, and comparing data about total investment costs,
profits, and capital efficiency (benefit/cost) of land use types,
which was based on economic suitability analysis for each
land use type. The maps were normalized on coordinate
system VN 2000/WGS 84 zone 48 (6 Degrees). Next, the
maps were digitized, overlapped, and edited by Mapinfo
software to establish thematic maps.
Data processing and evaluation method
The research used was land suitability evaluation
methodology [15, 16] that determines physical and economic
land suitability, respectively, for local major land use types
(Fig. 2.)
Data processing and evaluation method
T
he research used
was
land suitability evaluation m
ethodology [
15
,
16
] that
determine
s
physical and economic land suitability
,
respectively
,
for loc
al major
land use types (Fig.
2
.)
Fig.
2
.
Framework of l
and suitability
evaluation m
ethodology
.
Results and discussion
Land mapping units
The result of PRA with local farmers, agricultural manager discussion
s,
and
surveys show
ed
that five land characteristics
strongly
affect
ed
agriculture
product
ion in
the
coastal zone
of
Ben Tre
p
rovince including soil types,
salinity,
time of salinity
duration
, depth
of occurrence of sulfuric
horizon
,
and depth of
occurrence of
sulfidic
horizon.
Based
on these characteristics
,
five single
information map
s
were established
,
respectively
,
and overlapped together to
delineate
a
Land
mapping units map
that
has twenty land
units in
three coas
tal
district
s o
f
Ben Tre’s coastal zon
e
from
year 2018 (Table 1 and Fig.
3
)
.
Of
which,
Fig. 2. Framework of land suitability evaluation methodology.
Results and discussion
Land mapping units
The result of PRA with local farmers, agricultural
manager discussions, and surveys showed that five land
characteristics strongly affected agriculture production in
the coastal zone of Ben Tre province including soil types,
salinity, time of salinity duration, depth of occurrence
of sulfuric horizon, and depth of occurrence of sulfidic
horizon. Based on these characteristics, five single
information maps were established, respectively, and
overlapped together to delineate a Land-mapping units
map that has twenty land-units in three coastal districts of
Ben Tre’s coastal zone from year 2018 (Table 1 and Fig. 3).
Of which, land unit No. 19 had the largest area (34.94%)
occupying 36,451.3 ha, and there were characteristics of
saline soil, water salinity greater than 16
0
/
00
, and salinity
time was 12 month, not alum. Based on this data, these
land units could be suitable for the development of land
use types of the brackish and saline ecological sub-
region. In contrast, land unit No. 16 had the smallest area
(0.01%) occupying 13.4 ha, and possessed characteristics
of saline soil, non-salinated, and not alum. This land unit
could develop land use types belonging to a freshwater
ecological sub-region. However, attention should be paid
to the leaching of salinity in the soil. The characteristics
of the remaining land units and the area distribution of
each land unit are detailed in Table 1.

Latest articles

More like this